lithium-ion battery advantage and disadvantage

Advantages and disadvantages of lithium-ion batteries

This post will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the lithium-ion battery.

Advantages of lithium-ion battery

High voltage: The single battery’s working voltage is as high as 3.7-3.8V (the cell voltage can be up to 4.2V). That is three times that of Ni-Cd and Ni-H batteries.

Enormous specific energy: The actual specific power that can arrive 555Wh/kg, that is, the material can reach a particular capacity above 150mAh/g (3-4 times Ni-Cd, 2-3 times Ni-MH). That is close to About 88% of its theoretical value.

Long cycle life: generally can reach more than 500 times, even more than 1000 times, and lithium iron phosphate can get more than 2000 times. Regarding small-current discharge electrical appliances, the battery lifespan will double the competitiveness of electrical appliances.

Good safety performance: No pollution, no memory effect. As the predecessor of Li-ion, the lithium-ion battery is prone to short-circuit due to the formation of dendrites, which reduces its application fields: Li-ion does not contain cadmium, lead, mercury, etc. Environmental pollution elements: A significant drawback of Ni-Cd batteries of some processes (such as sintered) is the memory effect. It severely restricts the use of batteries, but Li-ion does not have this problem at all.

Low self-discharge: The self-discharge rate of fully-charged Li-ion at room temperature about 2% after one month. Much lower than 25-30% of Ni-Cd and 30-35% of Ni and MH.

Charged and discharged quickly: the capacity more than 80% of the nominal capacity after 30 minutes of charging. They can set to 90% of the little total in 10 minutes.

High working temperature range: working temperature at -25~55°C. With the improvement of electrolyte and the positive electrode, it expands to -40~70°C.

Disadvantages of lithium-ion battery

Aging: Unlike other batteries, the capacity of lithium-ion batteries will slowly decline, which has nothing to do with the number of times of use but with temperature. The possible mechanism is that the internal resistance gradually increases, making it easier to reflect in electronic products with the high working current. Replacing graphite with lithium titanate seems to extend life—the relationship between storage temperature and permanent loss rate of capacity.

Intolerance of overcharging: During overcharging, the excessively inserted lithium ions will be permanently fixed in the crystal lattice and can no longer be released, leading to short battery life and gas production, resulting in air bulging.

Intolerance of over-discharge: During over-discharge, too much lithium ions will be released from the electrode, which can cause the crystal lattice to collapse, thereby shortening the life span and causing gas bulging.

Multiple protection mechanisms are required: Since incorrect use will reduce the life span and may even cause an explosion, various protection mechanisms have added to lithium-ion batteries’ design.

Protection circuit: prevent over-charge, over-discharge, overload, and overheating

Vent: Prevent excessive pressure inside the battery.

Diaphragm characteristics: It has high puncture resistance and prevents internal short circuit; it can melt when the internal temperature of the battery is too high, preventing the passage of lithium ions, blocking the battery reaction, and increasing the internal resistance (to 2kQ).

You can learn the lithium-ion battery correct charging method from this link.